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Industrial silicon production

Large scale production of silicon is done by reduction of quartz with carbon. The necessary high temperatures of about 2000 °C are processed by an electric arc in a reduction furnace.

A mixture of quartz and different carbon materials (coal, coke or charcoal) is continuously fed into the furnace. From the furnace tap hole liquid silicon is extracted with a temperature of about 1600°C. The metal is further processed by oxidative refining, casting, crystallization and crushing.

The purity of metallurgical silicon is about 99%. Typical impurities that come from the raw materials are iron, aluminum, calcium and titanium. 

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